What is Dark Matter?
Dark matter: it sounds like a sinister creation in a science fiction novel, but it’s probably much more real than that. Most scientists believe that dark matter accounts for...Previous Theories and the Ultimate Cause of the Pioneer Anomaly
The Pioneer anomaly, a subtle but unexpected deceleration observed on many unmanned spacecraft, puzzled scientists for decades. Here's an overview of what the Pioneer anomaly is...The Monk who Believed in Aliens
Giordano Bruno was a monk on a mission. He believed life existed outside of the Earth, that the sun wasn't the center of the Universe, and that the Virgin Mary wasn't a virgin...Panspermia and the Origin of Life on Earth
Where did life on Earth originate? Did it form directly on our world billions of years ago? Or instead, was it an accidental gift from amongst the stars, reaching our planet...The Shape of the Universe and Human Perception
How does our inability to perceive reality completely impact our perception of the shape of the universe?Elementary Particles of the Standard Model
The Standard Model of physics includes 12 fermions, 12 gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson. It's a combination of quantum chromodynamics and the electroweak theory with the addition...The Ptolemaic System of Understanding the Universe
Sometimes, ideas hold great power and Claudius Ptolemy's second century treatise on astronomy was a big hit with civilization for over a thousand years. It was complex, but it solved...The Four Forces of Physics
According to physics, there are four basic forces in the Universe: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong force, and the weak force. To learn more about them, we must look at them...How Big Are the Largest Black Holes and How Do Astronomers Detect Them?
Much remains to be learned about black holes, though experts are trying their best to understand them. One area of interest is the search for the biggest black hole in the Universe...What is Cosmology?
Cosmology is the study of the Universe and man's place within it. Human existence is intertwined with the understanding and existence of the Universe. Cosmology attempts to analyze...