External Flash Diffusers
Bounce Flash Diffuser - Aside from this flash diffuser, there are also other types which are provided by third-party manufacturers. The most common of these flash diffusers is a bounce flash diffuser. It's a square transparent material that fits on the flash head and is used to bounce off unnecessary light produce by the flash. Bounce flash diffusers direct the beam coming from your flash towards the ceiling or other light surfaces. The bounce flash diffuser distributes the light evenly on your subject. When using a bounce flash diffuser, you must position the flash head at a 45 degrees angle pointed towards the ceiling. This would ensure that the light is bounced off properly.
Lightsphere (aka Lambency Flash Diffuser) - This type of flash diffuser is similar to a bounce flash diffuser but is shaped cylindrically and contains a dome-shaped material which diffuses light evenly. Popularized by photographer Gary Fong, this type of flash diffuser warms the light when doing flash photography, specifically portrait shots.
Flash Reflectors - Instead of flashing the light through the diffuser, flash reflectors fire the light towards the reflector disc. The reflected light illuminates the subject of your photos. You can then use this reflected light as the primary source of light for your photos or as a second light source.
Other Flash Diffusers - There are other types of flash diffusers available on the market including what are called, snots, gels, and grid spots. But since they are not fully supported by camera brands, it is a challenge locating them. So, some photographers opted to create their own diffusers instead of buying from third-party sellers. There are many DIY instructions on making these flash diffusers and materials are easily and readily available.