The runway surfaces are generally made using various materials such as gravel, sod, dirt, concrete, asphalt and water. Usually, the runways are at least 6,000 feet in length with an aircraft capacity of less than 90,178 kg. Runways are constructed using various markings which define runway, runway designation, threshold, centerline, touchdown zone, aiming point, displaced threshold, runway side stripe, runway demarcation bar, chevron markings for blast pads and stop ways and those for closure.
Taxiways are built using materials such as asphalt and concrete, and at smaller airports they are even made using gravel or grass. While constructing a taxiway, the navigation lights are placed 75 feet apart and at some airports, the lights are placed nearer at the intersections. Taxiways involve a series of markings for centerline, taxiway edge, runway holding position, ILS (Instrument Landing System) and Critical area holding position.
Nevertheless, there are various parameters that are also to be considered before designing an airplane runway such as the performance requirements imposed by FAR regulations, environmental characteristics and operating limits on aircraft weight. Interestingly, world records claim the airports of Qamdo Bangda and Ramenskoye to have the longest runways.