Military 1920 Airplanes
Following World War I, a new emphasis on airplanes as a fighting force for the military was proposed by a number of nations. The United States and the United Kingdom led the movement to build strong air capabilities in the face of future potential conflicts. However, during the first few years after the war, many new designs simply built on the same concepts as had been utilized during the previous conflict, with the exception of a major push for the development of seaplane-type fighters and bombers. The 1920 airplanes and their components reflected this methodology.
Bombing of enemy positions became a primary focus early on in the war, with pilots simply dropping bombs from the cockpits of their aircraft. In 1920, new designs for bombers included ways to position explosives along the wings and under the fuselage. The U.S.-based company Glenn L. Martin Company built the Martin NBS-1, which became the standard bomber in the country's Air Service from 1920 until 1928. The design was so successful for other countries as well that the only considerable design to challenge its position was the Nieuport London, a British night bomber which was eventually scrapped due to unreliable engine function.
Fighters and surveillance craft were also very important to the continued military aviation industry. Again, the U.S. led this effort with the development of the Leoning PW-2 single-seat monoplane and the Verville-Clarke-Pursuit. Other nations, such as Czechoslovakia and France also became involved with their own designs. The Aero Ae 02 and Letov S-1 were both early successes at surveillance fighters by the Czechs, while the French focused on military training vehicles such as the Bleriot-SPAD S.34 and the Hanriot HD.14, which they sold to Japan, Poland and the Soviet Union.
Flying boats were also heavily used by the military as 1920 airplanes were designed. The U.S. Built the Naval Aircraft Factory Tandem Fighter, while the British introduced two models: the Supermarine Sea King and the Parnall Puffin, albeit the latter in a strictly experimental capacity. Italy, too, built a seaplane fighter based heavily on civilian designs. The Macchi M.18 became heavily used by both sides during the Spanish Civil War.
As aviation history unfolded, the 1920's were a very influential time for the building of airplanes, both for civilians and the military.
Above left: Verville-Clarke-Pursuit. (Supplied by McCook Field Airman at Wikimedia Commons; Public Domain; http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Verville_Vcp-1.jpg)
Above right: Parnall Puffin. (Supplied by Wikimedia Commons; Public Domain; http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Puffin2a.jpg)