To clone a human embryo is to produce another embryo with identical genetic makeup. This process has huge potential: scientists can turn stem cells harvested from cloned embryos into any other kind of cell. But is it moral to create an embryo for the singular purpose of harvesting its cells?
The classic nature-versus-nurture debate is especially pronounced in questions of gender identity. Is it a product of culture, as many feminists argue, or of genetic makeup?
Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles, compartments that serve different cellular functions. All eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, cell membrane, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and ribosomes. Here’s our tiny tour around a tiny cell.
Barbara McClintock (1902-1992), who focused on maize genetics, studied the transposition of genes on chromosomes during breeding. McClintock won awards throughout her career, culminating in the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Her insights were decades ahead of many of her contempories.
People with albinism have hypopigmentation in their hair, skin, or eyes. What causes it? Genetic mutations that affect production of the pigment melanin. Albinism takes a number of phenotypic forms, each tied to a different type of genetic mutation.