Proto-oncogenes and Oncogenes: How Different Are They?

The difference between proto-oncogene and oncogene classes lie in their functions in the body. The proto-oncogene functions to facilitate cell growth for human development while the oncogene often promotes proliferation of abnormal cells that lead to cancer formation.

FOXP2 Gene Mutation: History and Significance

The FOXP2 gene, also referred to as the language gene, acts as a transcription factor that binds to other genes in order for them to make proteins. When FOXP2 gene mutation occurs, affected individuals often have language and speech problems.

List of Birth Defects of the Spine

Spinal defects usually develop in the first or last trimester of pregnancy. Typical symptoms of the defects are paralysis, incontinence, intellectual disability and sensory loss.

List of Facial Birth Defects

Cleft palate and cleft lip are some of the common birth defects that may appear in children. Cause is frequently associated with genetic problems, exposure to radiation and chemicals as well as infections.

An Overview of Birth Order Theory

The order of birth of a person in relation to his other siblings is said to influence his personality, beliefs, outlook and overall well-being. One such theory that explains these observations is the birth order theory of Alfred Adler.