The Rosetta Space Mission Instruments for Scientific Experiments
The Orbiter has eleven scientific instruments and the Philae Lander has nine scientific instruments.
The scientific instruments of the Rosetta orbiter are: (in alphabetical order)>
1. Comet Nucleus Sounding (CONSERT): CONSERT is the best instrument used for probing the interior of the comet. This instrument studies radio waves that are scattered and reflected by the nucleus of the comet.
2. Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA): The Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer will scrutinize the composition of dust grains emitted by the comet to ascertain whether they are organic or inorganic.
3. Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator (GIADA): This instrument will analyze and measure the momentum, mass, number and velocity distribution of dust grains coming from the nucleus of a comet.
4. Micro-Imaging Analysis System (MIDAS): MIDAS provides information on the population, volume, size and shape of particles by studying the dust environment around comets and asteroids.
5. Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO): The main objective of MIRO is to study and calculate the subsurface temperature of the comet’s nucleus and the properties of major gases.
6. Rosetta Orbiter Imaging System (OSIRIS): OSIRIS or Optical Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System will capture high-resolution images of the comet’s nucleus and the asteroids with a wide-angled and narrow-angled camera. It is the finest imaging system that will also help to identify the best landing site of Comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko.
7. Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA): This scientific instrument contains two sensors which will help in ascertaining the composition of the comet’s ionosphere and atmosphere, as well as the velocities of electrified gas particles.
8. Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC): RPC has five sensors which will monitor any activity of the comet, study its interactivity with the solar wind, measure the properties of the comet’s nucleus and analyze the structure of the inner coma.
9. Radio Science Investigation (RSI): This instrument will study the solar corona during the period when the Rosetta spacecraft passes behind the sun (as seen from Earth). The RSI will also measure the density, gravity and mass of the comet’s nucleus. The RSI will define the comet’s orbit as well as analyze the comet’s inner coma.
10. Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (ALICE): The Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer will detect the abundance of noble gases in the comet’s core by using a range of caesium iodide and potassium bromide photo cathodes. It will also provide crucial information on the nucleus’ surface composition and measure the comet’s production rates of carbon monoxide/dioxide and h0.
11. Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIRTIS): VIRTIS will classify the comet gases, and differentiate the physical conditions of the comet’s coma. It will also analyze the nucleus’ surface temperature.