While a visit to Jupiter will reveal many new facts about the planet and its many moons, Juno has specific mission objectives it plans to accomplish. These goals were derived from the years of research conducted by other probes and the questions that arose from the studies.
Juno will determine the exact ratio of oxygen to hydrogen as well as estimate the core mass of the planet. This will help distinguish the formation of the gas giant in relation to the solar system by measuring the abundance of water in its atmosphere.
The spacecraft will precisely map both Jupiter's magnetic field and its gravitational distribution of mass. This should determine how deep inside the atmosphere Jupiter's magnetic field begins and how the interior structure is formulated. In addition to planetary knowledge, this study will help scientists understand the general physics of dynamo theory. It will help them assess what mechanism within a planet creates a magnetic field.
As general scientific study, Juno will also map the composition of the atmosphere, its structure, temperature and cloud opacity. It will also explore Jupiter's polar magnetosphere and auroras.
To perform these experiments, Juno will be fitted with eight different instruments: an advanced camera, an ultraviolent imaging spectrograph, a radio and plasma wave sensor, a microwave radiometer, an infrared auroral mapper, an energetic particle detector, a stellar compass and an experiment to analyze auroral distribution.