1. Description: Balls of rock particles and ice that follow long orbits around the sun; sometimes called "dirty snowballs" or "icy mudballs"
2. Parts: Nucleus, coma, hydrogen cloud, dust tail, ion tail
- Nucleus: relatively solid block of ice and rock particles, 1 to 10 km in diameter
- Coma: water vapor and other gases released from the nucleus via sublimation
- Hydrogen cloud: millions of km in diameter; surrounds the comet
- Dust tail: made of tiny particles of the nucleus; up to 10 million km long
- Ion tail: made of charged particles that interact with solar wind; hundreds of millions of km long; due to solar wind, always points away from the sun
3. Origin: Remnants from the formation of the solar system about 4.6 billion years ago
4. Types: Short-period (periodic) comets have predictable orbits of under 200 years; long-period comets, with orbits over 200 years, visit the sun so rarely that the periods of many have not been accurately determined
5. Composition: The "dirt" is composed of minerals such as silicates and metals. The "ice" is composed various compounds of the lighter elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, including water, ammonia, methane, carbon monoxide, and sometimes organic compounds such as ether
6. Location: Most of the time, comets are beyond the orbit of Neptune. Short period comets range out to the Kuiper Belt, 4.5 to 7.5 billion km (30-50 AU) from the Sun. Long-period comets range to the Oort Cloud, four orders of magnitude farther than the Kuiper Belt at 100,000 AU.
7. Orbital Paths: Most are extremely eccentric, with one end of the ellipsis near the sun and the other far beyond the planetary orbits. Some long-period comets may not follow an elliptical orbit at all, but rather make a single pass around the sun during their lifetimes, on either a parabolic or hyperbolic path
8. Orbital Periods: Range from under five years (some periodic comets) to thousands of years (long-period comets), even up to an estimated 30 million years
9. Number of known comets: 441 short-period comets; 3091 long-period comets