The name 'Deneb' has its origins in an Arabic phrase, "Al Dhanab al Dajajah" which means "the hen's tail" and it denotes its position in the constellation; the tail of the swan. Other names are 'Deneb el Adige', 'Arided', 'Aridif' and 'Arrioph'. The two latter derive from the Arabic word 'Al Ridf', meaning "the hindmost", while the name 'Arided' has a more vague meaning. Another name for the star is 'Gallina' which means "hen" in Latin. It was originally used to denote the constellation, although it was later on used for the star itself. Some of the most important characteristics are listed below:
Surface temperature: ~8,400°K
Spectral type: A2Ia
Apparent magnitude: 1.25
Absolute magnitude: -7.0
Distance: 1,340-1,840 ly (light-years)
Luminosity: ~54,000 times the luminosity of Sun
Mass: 20-25 times the mass of the Sun
Radius: ~ 220 times the radius of the Sun
Rotation velocity: 30 kilometers per second
Constellation: Cygnus the Swan
Other stars in Cygnus: The most important are Albireo (Beta Cygni), 61 Cygni, and V508 Cygni and XX Cygni variable stars. There is a total of 84 stars in the constellation.
Other Interesting Facts:
- One of the largest white stars known so far.
- It takes almost half a year to make a full rotation.
If placed at the center of our Solar System, it would extend to the orbit of the Earth.
- It is the furthest first-magnitude star from Earth.
- It is currently the north pole star of Mars.
- 18,000 years ago, it was standing just 7 degrees off our North Celestial Pole and it will be in the same position again in the year 9800 approximately.
- If placed at the distance of Vega (~25 light-years), it would have a magnitude of - 7.8, shine 15 times more brightly than Venus, would cast shadows on the ground, and easily be visible in daylight.