The microscope contains a number of optical parts, which allow for the magnification and visualization of slides. The eyepiece is what you look through to see your slide. This eyepiece usually has a magnifying power of 10X, but some eyepieces have magnifying powers of 5X to 30X.
Objective lenses range from 4X to 100X and are the primary optical lenses on this piece of equipment. The eyepiece tube holds the eyepieces in place. If the microscope has a binocular head, it may also contain an adjustment ring that makes it easier for people with inconsistencies in eyesight to use the equipment. The nosepiece contains the objective lenses, which are mounted on a rotating part. This allows the user to select different objectives.
Focus knobs allow the user to focus the microscope properly. Some microscopes have separate fine focus and coarse focus knobs. Other models have coaxial knobs, which are the two knobs mounted on the same axis. Coaxial knobs make it easier for the viewer to focus the microscope since only one knob is needed. When using a microscope, you place the specimen on a stage. Some microscopes have a mechanical stage, which allows for very minute slide movements. If the microscope does not have a mechanical stage, it also has stage clips that allow the user to move a slide manually. The illuminator contains the lighting for the microscope.
The iris diaphragm regulates the amount of light that reaches a slide. This part works with the condenser, which collects the light from the illuminator. Both parts help to control the focus and amount of light applied to the slide.