Types of Albinism
There are several forms of albinism. The first, Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) type 1, involves the absence of melanin in the skin, hair, and eyes as well as vision problems. (If you study the word oculocutaneous, this makes sense—both the eyes (oculo) and skin (cutaneous) are affected.) OCA types 2, 3, and 4 are milder forms of OCA type 1: they involve partial, not total, pigment loss in these areas.
Ocular albinism affects melanin production only in the eyes, and presents with visual difficulties.
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) involves total or near-total loss of skin, hair, and eye pigmentation, like people with OCA type 1. The difference lies in the quality of a person's hair, which looks metallic; their respiratory problems; and further hypopigmentation in leukocytes, platelets, and reticular cells. This last deficiency manifests as well in another form of albinism, Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS).
Griscelli Syndrome (GS), involves mild melanin loss as well as immunological and neurological defects.