Genetic basis of Color Blindness
Color vision deficiency or color blindness is caused when the cone cells are unable to distinguish among the different light wavelengths and therefore misfire, causing the brain to misinterpret certain colors. Mutations in the following genes results in defects in color vision : CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2, OPN1LW, OPN1MW, and OPN1SW. More specifically:
OPN1LW mutations impact cells that are designed to pick up the red end of the light spectrum
OPN1MW mutations impact cells that detect the midrange colors of the light spectrum, such as yellow and green.
OPN1SW mutations impact cells that detect the lower range of the light spectrum, such as indigo and violet
Any mutations that affect the above genes causes the color vision deficiency. For example, a mutation affecting the first two genes would cause a defect in detecting the green and red color of the light spectrum. This is one of the most prevalent forms of color blindness.