Traditional Airplanes: Fuselage, Wings, Empennage
The traditional airplane has three main sections. The fuselage is the body of the aircraft, where passengers sit or cargo is loaded. The cockpit is enclosed at the front of this section, and on single-engine aircraft, the powerplant and propeller is generally mounted at the front of the fuselage.
The wings are another large component of an aircraft, usually mounted in the forward third of the fuselage. The wings can be mounted above, below, or in the middle of the fuselage, depending on the aircraft. The wingspan of the aircraft can be as long as the fuselage, or in some cases, longer. The wings are what generate lift to let the aircraft become airborne.
The final major section of an aircraft is called the empennage, or tail. This section is made up of the horizontal stabilizer, the elevators or stabilator, the vertical stabilizer, and the rudder. This section of the aircraft gives the pilot control over the pitch attitude of the aircraft, as well as control over the yawing motion of the aircraft.
Although these are the traditional large elements of an aircraft, some airplanes completely forego traditional design and use other concepts to provide different flight characteristics. One feature sometimes employed on these strange aircraft is called a canard. These canard airplanes create interesting flight factors.