Social and Cultural Expectations
Social and cultural norms and expectations play a major role in job design.
Factors such as national and religious holidays, standard hours of work and vacation rules and other similar factors can for instance affect the design of jobs across countries and states. For instance, Friday is the official weekly holiday in many Middle East countries, as opposed to the American Saturday and Sunday weekend.
In some cultures, designations and bureaucratic divisions of job roles rein supreme, whereas in other places, individuals perform any role or do any job as the situation demands. For instance, in society with high social stratification, managers and top executives do not perform tasks such as making their own coffee, delivering a file to the next person, and other basic tasks, and the company needs to deploy peons and attendants for the purpose. In open and flexible societies, designations such as peons do not exist.
Failure to consider social expectations and norms can cause social dissatisfaction and resentment, leading to low motivation levels. Ignoring local sensibilities can also make it difficult to secure workers to run operations.