Audit procedures are called audit programs by examiners, and they merely serve as guidelines and checklists of actions to perform during audit engagements. To provide an example, we focused on the details of the audit procedures for accounts receivables (AR), which we present in the succeeding sections.
In actual practice, audit techniques or styles in performing these procedures, developed by examiners through their skills and expertise, contribute largely to achieving the best audit results within a specified time frame.
The objectives, the extent, and the scope by which these procedures are performed may vary according to the role of the examiner, as internal or external auditor. These roles and objectives are discussed in full in a separate article entitled Financial Statement Audit vs. Forensic Accounting.
The term “extent" refers to the percentage of documents test-checked for completeness or for accuracy of computations involved. An AR audit program may also include the tracing of transactions from the selling point, to payment activities, up to its final disposition as a paid-account, a past due account, a doubtful account, or as a bad debt, as they are verified via random sampling of substantial balances or material amounts.
The term “scope" refers to the period covered based on cut-off dates established by the internal or external financial auditors. To fraud examiners or forensic accountants, the scope refers to the specific account(s) under suspicions of fraud--where dates could go as far back as necessary.