Culture strongly influences the personal style of negotiators, such as the way they talk, use titles, dress, and display emotions. For instance, Germans usually have a very formal style and avoid personal anecdotes, whereas Americans usually have an informal style, calling other negotiators on first name basis. Latin Americans and Spanish display high levels of emotionalism during negotiations, whereas the English, Germans, and Japanese rarely express their emotions. Such seemingly little actions nevertheless have a big say in outcome of the negotiation process. For instance, the Japanese consider calling people by their first names as an act of disrespect.
The personal style of the negotiator also influences the structure of negotiations. The French, and Indians, for instance prefer a top-down approach to negotiations, starting negotiations with an agreement on general principles, whereas the Americans and Japanese prefer a bottom-up approach, or try to seek agreement on specifics first.
People think, judge, behave, perceive, and reason differently primarily owing to cultural differences. Successful negotiations, especially in international businesses requires negotiators to understand different business cultures and negotiating styles that stem from such cultures, and adapt to the same.