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The Brine Shrimp or Sea Monkey - Artemia Salina

written by: VinceSummers•edited by: Niki Fears•updated: 6/2/2011

Sometimes sold as a novelty item under the name Sea Monkeys, brine shrimp—Artemia salina—are an important food source for fish and birds. They are also a common aquarium food. Large concentrations inhabit the Great Salt Lake and the San Francisco area.

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    Description

    Brine shrimp are smallthe larvae are less than 0.5 mm in length and as adults they are just over 10 mm. They resemble tiny shrimp with their tapered bodies and 11 pairs of appendages. Juveniles have one eye, but a second is apparent by maturity. Females possess a brood pouch that enables the release of live young when conditions are favorable. Males can be identified by modified antennae that help in mating. Artemia's color varies from blue-green to transparent to red.

    NIAA NIH Brine Shrimp Brine Shrimp

    Credit: NIAAA / NIH

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    Habitat and Diet

    Brine shrimp are found in the wild in over 250 locations across the globe. Although they are marine lifeforms, brine shrimp do not live in the oceans. Rather, they inhabit inland saltwater lakes or marshes. They tolerate hypersaline environments—that is, water with several times the salt concentration found in the oceans, although they can survive in waters with a less than normal saline content. Brine shrimp prefer to eat Dunaliellaa blue-green algae. Doubtless this is because they are small and easy to digest. When Duniella is scarce, brine shrimp eat the larger and more difficult to digest brown algae and diatoms.

    USGS Great Salt Lake The Great Salt Lake: Utah

    Credit: USGS

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    Reproduction and Growing Larvae at Home

    Artemia has a short yet flexible life cycle, which typically lasts one year. The predominant female can live as long as three months. Some species of brine shrimp reproduce through parthogenesis, whereby the female fertilizes her own eggs. Other species reproduce through viviparity, in which the male and the female alike share in fertilizing the eggs. Under optimal conditions, a female shrimp can produce as many as 300 offspring in four days.

    Eggs of the brine shrimp can be stored under stringent conditions even for years, and then be successfully hatched. To raise brine shrimp at home, one only needs to provide them water to hatch. Fossweb recommends the following solution and feeding:

    4 liters of water

    250 ml of rock salt

    30 ml of Epsom salts

    15 ml of baking soda

    Maintained the water level using ordinary tap water (aged a minimum of 24 hours to evaporate chlorine). Feed the shrimp a pinch of bakers' of brewers' yeast weekly.

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    Scientific Classification

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Arthropoda

    Class: Brachiopoda

    Order: Anostraca

    Family: Artimiidae

    Genus: Artemia

    Species: A. salina

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    References and Resources

    Fossweb: Brine Shrimp

    USGS: Utah Water Science Center:Brine Shrimp and Ecology of Great Salt Lake

    Portland State University: Artemia (Brine Shrimp) FAQ 1.1

    Also from Bright Hub:Experiments to Conduct with Sea Monkey Kits, by Katherine Frantz.