Working with the Geothermal Energy Sources
Geothermal steam power plants consist of three types: dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle.
A dry steam power plant system directly uses steam from underground wells. The steam is cleaned before feeding it to turbine engine. These plants are found in northern California and in Wyoming in a place nicknamed "Geysers."
Most common flash steam power plants use geothermal reservoirs of water of temperatures greater than 180 degrees C. Pumps are not required to tap this hot water as it flows up under its own pressure. Steam is formed automatically during the upward flow. The steam is cleaned and water is injected back into the wells. Hot water can also be used for many applications. This is a self-sustainable vital power source.
Binary systems adopt a lower temperature of water in a range of 107 to 180 degrees C. A certain organic working fluid uses heat from boiling water. The fluid gets vaporized in the heat exchanger and is then used to activate the turbine. The used water is reheated and working fluid is kept separately.
We get geothermal energy, which is clean sustainable heat, from the earth. This resource of energy ranges from shallow ground hot water to hot rock found miles below earth’s surface. As we go deeper, we find molten rock of extremely high temperatures called magma. About ten feet of earth’s shallow ground maintains a constant temperature of about 16 degrees C (60.8° F). Geothermal heat pumps are used to warm buildings from a network of heat exchanger pipes buried adjacent to buildings. This process is reversed in the summer to cool the buildings. This system provides a free source of hot air in winter and cool water during summer.
Natural geothermal hot springs caused by steam escaping at the site are found in Nevada. Most geothermal reservoirs are found in Alaska and Hawaii. Electricity is generated by drilling into the underground reservoirs. Useful applications are harnessed for plantations in greenhouses, farms houses, and several industrial processes. At most locations everywhere below earth’s surface, hot rock resources are found at depths up to five miles. Cold, fresh water from the local area can be diverted into fractured rocks to generate steam power for turbine engines that produce useful electricity for the locality. Magma rocks located even deeper in the earth are a less-often tapped direct source of geothermal superheated steam.