What are Camera Movements?
One of the most useful features of a view camera is the ability to move the front and rear standards independently. Camera movements can be used to correct a number of problems with focusing, by changing the plane of focus, and with perspective, such as correcting for keystoning and converging parallels.
Each type of movement has a different name. Rise and fall (sometimes also called drop) refer to the movement of the standards up and down, so "front rise," for example, means moving the front standard up from its normal position. Tilt is the movement from the usual vertical position, and can be either up (tilting so the front of the standard is angled up) or down (angling the front down). Shift (also called cross) keeps the standard perpendicular to the rail, but moves it in a left or right direction, while swing rotates the standard from the perpendicular, also to the left or right (in relation to the front of the standard).
Monorail cameras have the most possible movements and the greatest range of movements. Field cameras generally have more front movement than rear movement, due to their construction. Some movements are also possible with smaller format cameras by using an attachable bellows between the camera and lens, or by fitting the camera with a tilt-shift lens. These are usually not nearly as flexible as a large-format camera, however.