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What is a Pyramid?
The pyramid is a shape in which three or more faces converge to a point in the top (popularly known as the apex) and have a diverging base upon which they are supported. In general, the five-faced pyramid is very famous. This shape is adopted by the Great Pyramids of Egypt which have stood the tests of time and have been paid a fitting tribute by naming them as one among the Seven Wonders of the World. They are thousands of years old and have withstood all the climatic and other external aggressions which are attributed wholly to the way it was constructed.
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As technical advancements were very few during those ages, it was sheer manual labor and the brains of the designers that fulfilled the Pharaohs' requirements. The structural stability was ensured by usign the shapes that had geometrical advantages. Firstly, the weight of the entire structure is distributed in such a manner that it decreases as you go higher with respect to height. The inner walls and the inner structure were built first and the outer structures were developed. Though mathematical knowledge was very basic during that period, it was enough - also by sheer practical knowledge - to make the construction of the Pyraminds possible.
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Physical labor and the time required to complete these tasks are the two factors that make the pyramid enormous physically and mentally. Historians report that The Great Pyramid required more than 100,000 men to build and they were potentially as strong an the strongest men we encounter in our generation. About 2,600,000 blocks of stone has been used to build the pyramid, and 70% of the time was used up to build one third of the pyramid (the base) which weighed more and was more complex to build.
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Lifting Heavy Rocks
Lifting of stones posed a great challenge to the builders. It was very heavy and in general since the pyramid was built from the top, it was necessary for the builders to carry the stones to great heights (the apex of the pyramid). Though initially steps were built on which the stones were literally carried to the top, a new method was devised wherein ramps were constructed that aided the stone movement to the top of the pyramid. Different styles of ramps were used and aiding them were the wooden pulleys, levers etc. Some remains of these ramps were also found in many ancient sites like the Abu Gharib, Abusir, etc.
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The pyramids are an engineering marvel that has been constructed perfectly with so few flaws. Considering the technological backwardness the civilization had, it is indeed quite logical to gape at the wonder with awe. Even the passages and the inner chambers were so intricately designed so as to trick the robbers and desert thieves. With all the technological advancements we have today, some say it is almost impossible to construct a building that can match the pyramids in our generation.