First and foremost you must know that g++ has a TON of options and switches. So many it can be rather overwheming. To avoid scaring anyone from using g++, I will stick with simplicity and illustrate how to compile a simple "hello world" C++ code. This will serve to illustrate how simple compiling with g++ can be.
With that said let's take a look at compilation. As I said we will use a simple "Hello World" snippet of code. Here's the code:
std::cout << "Hello Brighthub!\n";
This file will be called test.cpp.
With that file in place the command:
g++ -o test test.cpp
This will compile, assemble, and link the application. The "-o" switch instructs g++ to place the output of the compilation into the file that follows "-o". This output will effectively be the name of the compiled application, which will in turn be the binary application created by the compilation. In order to run the application you will need to change the permissions of the file with the command:
chmod u+x test
To run this newly created application you only need to issue the command (from within the directory housing the file) ./test. In our sample you should see the output:
If you are interested in seeing what is happening during the compilation you can add the "-v" argument like so:
g++ -v -o test test.cpp
With the above command you will see a lot of text scroll by telling you what exactly is going on.